Scott Zona, Ph.D.
Fairchild Tropical Garden
11935 Old Cutler Road
Coral Gables (Miami), FL 33156 USA

Some years ago, Andrew Henderson and I published a review of animal-mediated seed dispersal of palms (Zona & Henderson 1989). At that time, literature on palm seed dispersal was scattered and difficult to locate, and several authoritative sources declared that palms were poorly dispersed or that the natural dispersal agents of some palms were long extinct. In dispelling these misconceptions, we found literature reports of fruit consumption and/or seed dispersal for over 140 taxa of palms, involving mammals (including bats), birds, fishes, reptiles, and even insects. The animals included specialist frugivores as well as opportunistic frugivores and omnivores. Clearly, the fruits of palms, often rich in oils or carbohydrates, have not gone unnoticed by hungry animals.

Since publishing that paper, I have continued to seek literature reports of palm seed dispersal. Often, these reports are published in the zoological literature, and sometimes the palm identifications are incomplete. Nevertheless, these observations continue to demonstrate that palms are important (some would say "keystone") members of their communities and that a wide range of animals have the opportunity to disperse palm seeds. This publication adds reports for 106 palm taxa to our previous list.

The tables below summarize the dispersal/feeding reports seen seen by me since 1989. The palm genera are arranged according to Uhl & Dransfield (1999), and species are alphabetical. Table 1 includes subfamilies Coryphoideae, Calamoideae, and Ceroxyloideae (Nypa fruticans, the sole species of the Nypoideae, is water-dispersed and excluded from this review); Table 2 includes the Arecoideae and Phytelephantoideae. Palm nomenclature is brought in line with recent taxonomic monographs or Henderson et al. (1995) and updated according to Govaerts and Dransfield (2005); zoological nomenclature generally follows the original citation. The order in which the animal dispersers are listed is not meant to imply relative importance. As per the convention established in our previous paper (Zona & Henderson 1989), the names of animals are followed by letters indicating the group to which they belong, as follows:

A = Aves (birds)
C = Chiroptera (bats)
I = Insecta (insects)
M = Mammalia (mammals, excluding bats)
P = Pisces (fishes)
R = Reptilia (reptiles)

As with our previous review (Zona & Henderson 1989), I include animals that may at times, even most of the time, be seed predators (e.g., deer [see Bodmer 1989, Klimstra & Dooley 1990]). The distinction between disperser and predator is not always immediately evident. For example, the black bear (Ursus americanus) feeds on palm "hearts" (terminal buds) of Sabal and Serenoa, as well as their fruits, so it both disperses and kills palms (Roof 1997). Similarly, the bamboo lemur Hapalemur griseus feeds on both ripe and unripe fruits of Dypsis nodifera in Madagascar (Tan 1999), so it is both a seed disperser and seed predator. As we explained previously (Zona & Henderson 1989), even the specialist frugivore can at times be a seed predator, and conversely, even a seed predator can at times disperse seeds (Forget 1991).

These results will be up-dated as literature comes to hand. Researchers are asked to send citations or reprints of additional records of palm seed dispersal to the author so that they can be added to the list.

First posted: 1999-December
Last up-date: 2006-July-24

Literature Cited

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Illegal palm felling in Lokobe Reserve, Madagascar.
Principes 38: 204–210.
[Ravenea sambiranensis, Dypsis ampasindavae, Dypsis madagascariensis]

Al-Dabbagh, K. Y., J. H. Jiad, & I. N. Waheed. 1988 (publ. 1989).
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Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 85: 530–537.
[Phoenix dactylifera]

Auffenberg, W. 1988.
Gray's Monitor Lizard.
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[Livistona rotundifolia, Corypha utan, Caryota cumingii, Caryota rumphiana]

Balasubramanian, P. 1996.
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[Phoenix pusilla]

Bernal, R. 1998.
Back cover.
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[Aiphanes aculeata]

Birkinshaw, C. 2001.
Frusit characteristics of species dispersed by the black lemur (Eulemur macaco) in the Lokobe Forest, Madagascar.
Biotropica 33: 478–486.
[Dypsis amapsindavae, Dypsis pinnatifrons]

Branan, W. V., M. C. M. Werkhoven, & R. L. Marchinton. 1985.
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[Euterpe oleraceae]

Bodmer, R. E. 1989.
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Jour. Zool. (London) 219: 457–467.

Bodmer, R. E. 1991.
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Biotropica 23: 255–261.
[Mauritia flexuosa, Iriartea, Euterpe, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea]

Bollen, A., L. van Elsacker & J. U. Ganzhorn. 2004.
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[Dypsis prestoniana]

Bonadie, W. A. & P. R. Bacon. 2000.
Year-round utilisation of fragmented palm swamp forest by Red-bellied macaws (Ara manilata) and Orange-winged parrots (Amazona amazonica) in the Nariva Swamp (Trinidad).
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[Roystonea oleracea]

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Bühler, P. 1993.
Interaktionen zwischen Tukanen (Ramphastidae, Aves) und fruchtenden Palmen (Oenocarpus bacaba, Arecoideae), pp. 89–102
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[Oenocarpus bacaba]

Cardoso de Lima, A., W. E. Magnusson, & V. Lopes da Costa. 1997.
Diet of the turtle Phrynops rufipes in Central Amazônia.
Copeia 1997: 216–219.
[Iriartea deltoideae, Socratea exorrhiza, Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bacaba, Oenocarpus bataua]

Cintra, R. & V. Horna. 1997.
Seed and seeling survival of the palm Astrocaryum murumuru and the legume tree Dipteryx micrantha in gaps in Amazonian forest.
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Family Psittacidae, pp. 280–477,
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[Phoenix dactylifera, Mauritia, Euterpe, Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus, Oenocarpus bataua, Roystonea oleracea, Roystonea regia, Deckenia nobilis, Verschafeltia splendida, Phoenicophorium borsigianum, Syagrus coronata, Syagrus romanzoffiana, Attalea, Attalea funifera, Attalea maripa, Attalea phalerata, Attalea speciosa, Elaeis guineensis, Acrocomia, Acrocomia aculeata, Astrocaryum]

Conceiçao de Souza-Stevaux, M.; R. R. B. Negrelle, & V. Citadini-Zanette. 1994.
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[Syagrus romanzoffiana]

Cowen, P. E. 1991.
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[Phytelephas seemannii]

Datta, A. & G. S.Rawat. 2003.
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Biotropica 35: 208–218.
[Livistona jenkinsiana]

De Castro, E. R. & M. Galetti. 2004.
Frugivory and seed dispersal by the tegu lizard Tupinambis merianae (Reptilia: Teiidae).
Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia (Sao Paulo). 44(6) 91–97.
[Syagrus oleracea, Syagrus romanzoffiana]

De Fátima M. Dos Santos, M. & S. M.  Hartz 1999.
The food habits of Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae) in the Lami Biological Reserve, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.
Mammalia 63: 525–530.
[Butia capitata, Syagrus romanzoffianum]

Defler, T. R. & S. B. Defler. 1996.
Diet of a group of Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha in southeastern Colombia.
Internat. Jour. Primatol. 17: 161–190.
[Iriartea deltoidea]

Dudley, J. P. 2000.
Seed dispersal by elephants in semiarid woodland habitats of Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.
Biotropica 32: 556–561.
[Hyphaene petersiana as H. benguellensis]

Erard, C., M. Théry, & D. Sabatier. 1989.
Régime alimentaire de Rupicola rupicola (Cotingidae) en Guyane Française. Relations avec la frugivorie et al zoochorie.
Rev. d'Ecol. (Terre Vie) 44: 47–74.
[Oenocarpus, Oenocarpus bacaba, Astrocaryum munbaca]

Farmer, R. in Lockett, L & R. W. Read. 1990.
Extension of native range of Sabal mexicana (Palmae) in Texas to include Central Coast.
Sida 14: 79–85.
[Sabal mexicana]

Feer, F. 1989.
Comparison de régimes alimentaires de Cephalophus callipygus et C. dorsalis, Bovidés sympatriques de la forêt sempervirente africaine.
Mammalia 53: 563–604.
[Laccosperma, Eremospatha wendlandiana, Calamus deeratus]

Felger, R. S. & E. Joyal. 1999.
The palms (Arecaceae) of Sonora, Mexico.
Aliso 18: 1–18.
[Washingtonia robusta]

Forget, P.-M. 1991.
Scatterhoarding of Astrocaryum paramaca by Proechimys in French Guiana: Comparison with Myoprocta exilis.
Trop. Ecol. 32: 155–167.
[Astrocaryum paramaca]

Fragoso, J. M. V. 1997.
Tapir-generated seed shadows: Scale-dependent patchiness in the Amazon rain forest.
Jour. Ecol. 85: 519–529.
[Attalea maripa]

Fragoso, J. M. V. & J. M. Huffman. 2000.
Seed-dispersal and seedling recruitment patterns by the last Neotropical megafaunal element in Amazonia, the tapir.
Jour. Trop. Ecol. 16: 369–385.
[Attalea maripa (as Maximiliana maripa), Oenocarpus bacaba, Mauritia flexuosa, Astrocaryum sp.]

Fuentes, A. 1996.
Feeding and ranging in the Mentawai Island langur (Presbytis potenziani).
Internat. Jour. Primatol. 17: 525–548.
[Daemonorops, Calamus, Arenga obtusifolia]

Gadikas, B. M. F. 1988.
Orangutan diet, range, and activity at Tanjung Puting, Central Broneo.
Internat. Jour. Primatol. 9: 1–35.

Galetti, M. & A. Aleixo. 1998.
Effects of palm heart harvesting on avian frugivores in the Atlantic rain forest of Brazil.
Jour. Applied Ecol. 35: 286–293.
[Euterpe edulis]

Galetti, M & P. R. Guimarães, Jr. 2004.
Seed dispersal of Attalea phalerata (Palmae) by Crested Caracaras (Caracara plancus) in the Pantanal and a review of frugivory by raptors.
Ararajuba 12: 133–135.
[Attalea phalerata]

Galetti, M., R. Laps & M. A. Pizo. 2000 [2001].
Frugivory by toucans (Ramphastidae) at two altitudes in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.
Biotropica 32: 842–850.
[Euterpe edulis, Geonoma elegans]

Galetti, M., M. Paschoal, & F. Pedroni. 1992.
Predation on palm nuts (Syagrus romanzoffiana) by squirrels (Sciurus ingrami) in south-east Brazil.
Jour. Trop. Ecol. 8: 121–123.
[Syagrus romanzoffiana]

Galetti, M. & F. Pedroni. 1994.
Seasonal diet of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in a semideciduous forest in south-east Brazil.
Jour. Trop. Ecol. 10: 27–39.
[Syagrus romanzoffiana]

Galetti, M., F. Pedroni, L.P.C. Morelatto. 1994.
Diet of the brown howler monkey Alouatta fusca in a forest fragment in southeastern Brazil.
Mammalia 58: 111–118.
[Syagrus romanzoffiana]

Galetti, M, V. B. Zipparro & P. C. Morellato. 1999.
Fruiting phenology and frugivory on the palm Euterpe edulis in a lowland Atlantic forest of Brazil.
Ecotropica 5: 115–122.
[Euterpe edulis]

Gittins, S. P. 1982.
Feeding and ranging in the agile gibbon.
Folia Primatol. 38: 39–71.
[Arenga westerhoutii]

Govaerts, R. & J. Dransfield. 2005.
World Checklist of Palms.
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Gruèzo, W. S. & A. C. Soligam. 1990.
Identity and germination of seeds from feces of the Philippine palm civet (Paradoxurus philippinensis Jourdan).
Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 38: 69–82.
[Caryota rumphinana, Pinanga insignis]

Guix, J. C. & X. Ruiz. 1995.
Toucans and thrushes as potential dispersers of seed-predatory weevil larvae in southeastern Brazil.
Canadian Jour. Zool. 73: 745–748.
[Syagrus romanzoffiana]

Harlow, R. F. 1961.
Fall and winter foods of Florida white-tailed deer.
Quart. J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 24: 19–38.
[Serenoa repens, Sabal palmetto]

Heatubun, C. D. 2000.
In search of Caryota zebrina–a palm expedition to the Cyclops Mountains.
Palms 44: 187–193.
[Caryota zebrina]

Healey, C. 1992.
Abundance, diet and roosting defecations of the Torresian Imperial-Pigeon Ducula spilorrhoa in Darwin.
Corella 16: 107-110.
[Caryota, Carpentaria acuminata]

Henderson, A., G. Galeano, & R. Bernal. 1995.
Field Guide to the Palms of the Americas.
Princeton University Press, New Jersey.

Henry, O., F. Feer, & D. Sabatier. 2000.
Diet of the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris L.) in French Guiana.
Biotropica 32: 364-368.
[Astrocaryum sp., Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua]

Hilmon, J, B. 1968.
Autecology of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small).
Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University.
[Serenoa repens]

Hoch, G. & G. Adler. 1997.
Removal of black palm (Astrocaryum standleyanum) seeds by spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus).
Jour. Trop. Biol. 13: 51–58.
[Astrocaryum standleyanum]

Innis, G. J. 1989.
Feeding ecology of fruit pigeons in subtropical rainforests of south-eastern Queensland.
Austr. Wildl. Res. 16: 365–394.
[Archontophoenix cunninghamiana]

Innis, G. J. & J. McEvoy. 1992.
Feeding ecology of green catbirds (Ailuroedus crassirostris) in subtropical rainforests of south-eastern Queensland.
Wildlife Res. (Austr.) 19: 317–329.
[Archontophoenix cunninghamiana]

Iwanga, S. & S. F. Ferrari. 2001.
Party size and diet of syntopic Atelids (Ateles chamek and Lagothrix cana) in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia.
Folia Primatol. 72: 217–227.
[Euterpe precatoria]

Kays, R. W. 1999.
Food preferences of kinkajous (Potos flavus): a frugivorous carnivore.
Jour. Mammalogy 80: 589–599.
[Astrocaryum standleyanum, Attalea butyracea]

Kinnaird, M. F. 1992.
Competition for a forest palm: Use of Phoenix reclinata by human and nonhuman primates.
Conserv. Biol. 6: 101–107.
[Phoenix reclinata]

Kinzey, W. G., A. L. Rosenberger, P. S. Heisler, D. L. Prowse, & J. S. Trilling. 1977.
A preliminary field investigation of the yellow handed titi monkey, Callicebus torquatus torquatus, in northern Peru.
Primates 18: 159–181.
[Oenocarpus bataua]

Klein, L. L. & D. B. Klein. 1977.
Feeding behaviour of the Colombian spider monkey, pp. 153–180,
in T. H. Clutton-Brock (ed.),
Primate Ecology: studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys, and apes.
Academic Press, London.
[Iriartea, Iriartea deltoidea, Socratea exorrhiza, Euterpe, Oenocarpus]

Klimstra, W. D. & A. L. Dooley. 1990.
Foods of the Key Deer.
Florida Scientist 53: 264–273.
[Thrinax morrisii, Coccothrinax argentata, Serenoa repens]

Langguth, A. 1975.
Ecology and evolution of the South American canids.
pp. 192–206, in M. W. Fox (ed.), The wild canids.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY.
[Copernicia alba]

Leite, C. O. 1990.
Biologia da reproduçao de Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes) O. Kuntze (Diplothemium maritimum Mart.)–Palmae.
M.Sc. thesis, Universidad Federal do Rio de Janiero.
(n.v., cited in Moraes R., M. 1996. Allagoptera (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 73: 1–35.)
[Allagoptera arenaria]

Liu. H., S. G. Platt & C.K. Borg. 2004.
Seed dispersal by the Florida box turtle (Terrapene carolina bauri) in pine rockland forests of the lower Florida Keys, United States.
Oecologia 138: 539–546.
[Serenoa repens]

Lott, R. H. & S. McIntyre. 1991.
Seed predation and dispersal in a tropical palm Normanbya normanbyi (W. Hill) L. H. Bailey.
Palms & Cycads (Australia) 32: 6–16.
[Normanbya normanbyi]

Lucas, P. W. & R. T. Corlett. 1991.
Relationship between the diet of Macaca fascicularis and forest phenology.
Folia Primatol. 57: 201–215.
[Korthalsia, Daemonorops, Calamus oxleyanus, Oncosperma horridum]

Lucas, P. W. & R. T. Corlett. 1992.
Notes on the treatment of palm fruits by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).
Principes 36: 45–48.
[Korthalsia rostrata, Plectocomia elongata]

Maehr, D. S. 1984.
The black bear as a seed disperser in Florida.
Florida Field Naturalist 12: 40–42.
[Rhapidophyllum hystrix, Sabal palmetto]

Mamede-Costa, A. C. & S. Godoi. 1998.
Consumption of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Arecaceae) fruits, by black lion tamarins (Leontopithicus chrysopygus) in south-eastern Brazil.
Mammalia 62: 310–3313.
[Syagrus romanzoffiana]

Martínez-Gallardo, R. & V. Sánchez-Cordero. 1993.
Dietary value of fruits and seeds to spiny pocket mice, Heteromys desmarestianus (Heteromyidae).
Jour. Mammalogy 74: 436–442.
[Chamaedorea tepijilote, Bactris tricophylla, Astrocaryum mexicanum]

McConkey, K. R. 2000.
Primary seed shadow generated by gibbons in the rain forest of Barito Ulu, Central Borneo.
Amer. Journ. Primatol. 52: 13–29.
[Calamus sp.]

McEwan, W. M. 1978.
The food of the New Zealand pigeon (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae novaeseelandiae).
New Zealand Jour. Ecology 1: 99–108.
[Rhopalostylis sapida]

McGrew, W. C., P. J. Baldwin, & C. E. G. Tutin. 1988.
Diet of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Mt. Assirik, Senegal: I. Composition.
Amer. Jour. Primatol. 16: 213–226.
[Borassus aethiopum, Raphia sundaica]

Mishra, R. M. & S. K. Singh. 1989.
Dispersal ecology of Phoenix sylvestris Roxb.
Environment & Ecology 7: 878–881.
[Phoenix sylvestris]

Moraes R., M. 1991.
Contribución al estudio del ciblo biológico de la palma Copernicia alba en un area ganadera (Espíritu, Beni, Bolivia).
Ecología en Bolivia 18: 1–20.
[Copernicia alba]

Moskovits, D. K. & K. A. Bjorndal. 1990.
Diet and food preferences of the tortoises Geochelone carbonariaand G. denticulata in northwestern Brazil.
Herpetologica 46: 207–218.
[Mauritia flexuosa, Desmoncus polyacanthos]

Mota-Junior, J. C. & K. Martins. 2002.
The frugivorous diet of the maned wolf, Cyrosocyon brachyurus, in Brazil: Ecology and conservation, pp. 291–303,
in Levey, D. J., W. R. Silva & M. Galetti (eds).
Seed Dispersal and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation. CAB International.
[Allagoptera campestris {87.5% of seeds fragmented and destroyed}, Mauritia flexuosa, Syagrus petraea, Syagrus romanzoffiana]

Mota-Junior, J. C., J. A. Lombardi, & S. A. Talamoni. 1994.
Notes on Crab-eating fox (Dusicyon [sic] thous) seed dispersal and food habits in southeastern Brazil.
Mammalia 58: 156–159.
[Syagrus romanzoffiana]

Olmos, F., R. Pardini, R. L. P. Boulhosa, R. Bürgi, & C. Morsello. 1999.
Do tapirs steal food from palm seed predators or give them a lift?
Biotropica 31: 375–379.
[Syagrus romanzoffiana]

Palacios, E., A. Rodríguez, & T. R. Defler. 1997.
Diet of a group of Callicebus torquatus lugens (Humboldt, 1812) during the annual resource bottleneck in Amazonian Colombia.
Internat. Jour. Primatol. 18: 503–522.
[Socratea exorrhiza, Euterpe catinga, Oenocarpus bataua, Oenocarpus mapora]

Payne, R. B. 1997.
Family Cuculidae, pp. 508–607,
in Del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, & J. Sargatal (eds.),
Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. 4. Sandgrouse to Cuckoos.
Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
[Archontophoenix alexandrae]

Paz, E. A., R. Rodríguiez, & M. Clara. 1995.
Dispersión de la "Palma Butía" (Butia capitata) per el "Zorro de Monte" (Cerdocyon thous) en montes nativos de la reserva de biosfera, Bañados del Este, Uruguay.
Comunicaciones Bot. Mus. Hist. Nat. de Montevideo 5(104): 1–4.
[Butia capitata]

Pendje, G. 1994.
La frugivorie de Civettictus civetta (Schreiber) et son rôle dans la dispersion des graines au Mayombe.
Rev. d'Ecol. (Terre Vie) 49: 107–116.
[Elaeis guineensis]

Peres, C. A. 1994.
Compostion, density, and fruiting phenology of arborescent palms in an Amazonian terra firme forest.
Biotropica 26: 285–294.
[Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea maripa, Astrocaryum murumuru]

Pérez-Rivera, R. A. 1984.
Aves que se alimentan de la palma real (Roystonea borinquena) in Puerto Rico.
Science-Ciencia 11: 95–96.
[Roystonea borinquena]

Pimentel, D. S. & M. Tabarelli. 2004.
Seed dispersal of the palm Attalea oleifera in a remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
Biotropica 36: 74–84.
[Attalea oleifera]

Pizo, M. A. & E. M. Vieira. 2004.
Palm harvesting affects seed predation of Euterpe edulis, a threatened palm of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
Braz. Jour. Biol. 64 (#B): 669–676.
[Euterpe edulis]

Poulsen, J. R., C. J. Clark, E. F. Connor & T. B. Smith. 2002.
Differential resource use by primates and hornbills: implications for seed dispersal.
Ecology 83: 228–240.
[Elaeis guineensis, Eremospatha macrocarpa, Lacospermum secundiflorum, Raphia monbuttorum]

Quiroga-Castro, V. D. & A. I. Roldán. 2001.
The fate of Attalea phalerata (Palmae) seeds dispersed to a tapir latrine.
Biotropica 33: 472–477.
[Attalea phalerata]

Ratsirarson, J. & J. A. Silander, Jr. 1997.
Factors affecting the distribution of a threatened Madagascar palm species Dypsis decaryi.
Principes 41: 100–111.
[Dypsis decaryi]

Rodrigues, M., F. Olmos, & M. Galetti. 1993.
Seed dispersal by tapir in southeastern Brazil.
Mammalia 57: 460–461.
[Euterpe edulis]

Rogers, M. E., F. Maisels, E. A. Williamson, M. Fernandez, & C. E. G. Tutin. 1990.
Gorilla diet in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon:  A nutritional analysis.
Oecologia 84: 326–339.
[Elaeis guineensis]

Roof, J. 1997.
Black bear food habits in the lower Wekiva River basin of Central Florida.
Florida Field Nat. 25: 92–97.
[Serenoa repens, Sabal palmetto]

Scariot, A. 1998.
Seed dispersal and predation of the palm Acrocomia aculeata.
Principes 42: 5–8.
[Acrocomia aculeata]

Schlee, M. A. 2005.
King vultures (Sarcoramphus papa) forage in moriche and curcuri palm stands.
Jour. Raptor Res. 39: 458–461.
[Mauritia flexuosa]

Shapcott, A. 2000.
Conservation and genetics in the fragmented monsoon rainforest in the Northern Territory, Australia: A case study of three frugivore-dispersed species.
Aust. J. Bot. 48: 397–407.
[Carpentaria acuminata]

Simmen, B. & D. Sabatier. 1996.
Diets of some French Guianan primates: Food composition and food choices.
Internat. Jour. Primatol. 17: 661–693.
[Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea maripa]

Skov, F. 1994.
Geonoma polyandra (Arecaceae), a new species from Ecuador.
Nordic Jour. Bot. 14: 39–41.
[Geonoma polyandra]

Solórzano, S., S. Castillo, T. Valverde & L. Avila. 2000.
Quetzal abundance in relation to fruit availability in a cloud forest in southeastern Mexico.
Biotropica 32: 523–532.

Sreekumar, P. G. & M. Balakrishnan. 2002.
Seed dispersal by the sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) in south India.
Biotropica 34: 474–477.
[Phoenix loureiri var. humulis]

Stevenson, P. R., M. J. Quiñones & J. A. Ahumada. 2000.
Influence of fruit availability on ecological overlap among four Neotropical primates at Tinigua National Park, Colombia.
Biotropica 32: 533–544.
[Oenocarpus bataua]

Stone, A. I. 2006.
Foraging ontogeny is not linked to delayed maturation in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).
Ethology 112: 105–115.
[Attalea maripa]

Struthers, P. H. 1927.
Notes on the bird-life of Mona and Desecheo Islands.
Auk 44: 539–544.
[Roystonea borinquena]

Sukumar, R. 1990.
Ecology of the Asian elephant in southern India. II. Feeding habits and crop raiding patterns.
Jour. Trop. Ecol. 6: 33–53.
[Phoenix loureiri humilis]

Swedell, L. 2001.
Ranging bahavior, group size and behavioral flexibility in Ethiopian Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas).
Folia Primatol. 73: 95–103.
[Hyphaene thebaica]

Tan, C. L. 1999.
Group composition, home range size, and diet of three sympatric bamboo lemur species (genus Hapalemur) in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar.
Internat. Jour. Primatol. 20: 547–566.
[Dypsis nodifera]

Théry, M., C. Érard, & D. Sabatier. 1992.
Les fruits dans le régime alimentaire de Penelope marail (Aves, Cracidae) en forêt Guyanaise:  Frugivorie stricte et sélective.
Rev. d'Ecol. (Terre Vie) 47: 383–401.
[Euterpe oleracea, Geonoma stricta]

Théry, M. & D. Larpin. 1993.
Seed dispersal and vegetation dynamics at a cock-of-the-rock's lek in the tropical forest of French Guiana.
Jour. Trop. Ecol. 9: 109–116.
[Euterpe oleracea, Oenocarpus bacaba]

Thiollay, J. M. 1994.
Family Accipitridae (Hawkes and Eagles), pp. 52-205,
in Del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, & J. Sargatal (eds.),
Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. 2. New World Vultures to Guineafowl.
Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
[Phoenix reclinata, Raphia vinifera, Elaeis guineensis]

Thohari, M. & Y. Santosa. 1984.
A preliminary study on the role of civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) in the natural regeneration of palm (Pinanga khulhii [sic] and P. zavana [sic]) at Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Park.
Symposium on Forest Regeneration in Southeast Asia.
SEAMEO Regional Center for Tropical Biology (BIOTROP). 9–11 May, Bogor, Indonesia.
[Pinanga coronata]

Thorton, I. W. B. 1996.
Krakatau: The destruction and reassembly of an island ecosystem.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.
[Oncosperma tigillarium]

Turner, D. A. 1997.
Family Musophagidae,  pp. 480–506,
in Del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, & J. Sargatal (eds.),
Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. 4. Sandgrouse to Cuckoos.
Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
[Phoenix reclinata, Elaeis guineensis]

Tutin, C. E. G. & M. Fernandez. 1993.
Composition of the diet of chimpanzees and comparisons with that of sympatric lowland gorillas in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon.
Amer. Jour. Primatol. 30: 195–211.
[Eremospatha cabrae, Elaeis guineensis]

Tyson, C. 2000.
A palm's fight for survival.
Garden Views (Fairchild Tropical Garden) 55(2) [March]: 14, 15.
[Hyphaene petersiana]

Uhl, N. W. & J. Dransfield. 1999.
Genera Palmarum after ten years, pp. 245–253
in Henderson, A. & F. Borchsenius (eds.).
Evolution, variation, and classification of palms.
New York Bot. Gard. Memiors 83.

Wahungu, G. M. 1998.
Diet and habitat overlap in two sympatric primate species, the Tana crested mangabey Cercocebus galeritus and yellow baboon Papio cynocephalus.
African Jour. Ecol. 36: 159–173.
[Hyphaene compressa, Phoenix reclinata]

Watling, D. 1983.
Onithological notes from Sulawesi.
Emu 83: 247–261.

Webster, M. S. 1997.
Extreme sexual size dimorphism, sexual selection, and the foraging ecology of Montezuma oropendolas.
The Auk 114: 570–580.
[Bactris gasipaes]

Whitney, K.D., M. K. Fogiel, A. M. Lamperti, K. M. Holbrook, D. J. Stauffer, B. D. Hardesty, V. T. Parker, & T. B. Smith. 1998.
Seed dispersal by Ceratogymna hornbills in the Dja Reserve, Cameroon.
Jour. Trop. Ecol. 14: 351–371.
[Laccosperma secundiflora, Eremospatha macrocarpa, Raphia monbuttorum, Elaeis guineensis]

Whittaker, A. 1996.
Notes of feeding behaviour, diet and anting of some cotingas.
Bull. Brit. Ornith. Club 116: 58–62.

Yamashita, C. & M. de Paula Valle. 1993.
On the linkage between Anodorhynchus macaws and palm nuts, and the extinction of the glaucous macaw.
Bull. Brit. Ornith. Club 113: 53–60.
[Butia yatay]

Yamashita, C. & Y. Machado de Barros. 1997.
The blue-throated macaw Ara glaucogularis: Characterization of its distinctive habits in savannahs of the Beni, Bolivia.
Ararajuba 5: 141–150.
[Attalea phalerata, Acrocomia aculeata]

Yamashita, N. 1996.
Seasonality and site specificity of mechanical dietary patterns in to Malagasy lemur families (Lemuridae and Indriidae).
Internat. Jour. Primatol. 17: 355–387.

Zona, S. & A. Henderson. 1989.
A review of animal-mediated seed dispersal of palms.
Selbyana 11: 6–21.

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